We have sequenced the complete coding region of the Rh blood group gene for mouse and rat and that of Rh-related 50 kD glycoprotein (Rh50) for mouse, rat, and crab-eating macaque. Phylogenetic analyses of Rh and Rh50 amino acid sequences indicate that the Rh50 gene has been evolving about two times more slowly than the Rh blood group gene in both primates and rodents. This conservative nature of the Rh50 gene suggests its relative importance to the Rh blood group gene. The time of gene duplication that produced the Rh and Rh50 genes was estimated to be about 240-310 million years ago. We also conducted window analyses of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions for those two genes. Some peaks where nonsynonymous substitutions are higher than synonymous ones were located on outer membrane regions. This suggests the existence of positive Darwinian selection on Rh and Rh50 genes through host-parasite interactions.