Stabilization of lactate dehydrogenase following freeze thawing and vacuum-drying in the presence of trehalose and borate

Pharm Res. 1998 Aug;15(8):1215-21. doi: 10.1023/a:1011987707515.


Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of trehalose and trehalose/sodium tetraborate mixtures on recovery of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity following freeze-thawing and centrifugal vacuum-drying/rehydration. The storage stability of LDH under conditions of either high relative humidity or high temperature was also studied.

Methods: LDH was prepared in buffered aqueous formulations containing trehalose alone and trehalose/"borate" mixtures. Enzymatic activity was measured immediately following freeze-thawing and vacuum-drying/rehydration processes, and also after vacuum-dried formulations were stored in either high humidity or high temperature environments. Also, glass transition temperatures (Tg) were measured for both freeze-dried and vacuum-dried formulations.

Results: The Tg values of freeze-dried trehalose/borate mixtures are considerably higher than that of trehalose alone. Freezing and vacuum-drying LDH in the presence of 300 mM trehalose resulted in the recovery of 80% and 65% of the original activity, respectively. For vacuum-dried mixtures, boron concentrations below 1.2 mole boron/ mole trehalose had no effect on recovered LDH. After several weeks storage in either humid (100% relative humidity) or warm (45 degrees C) environments, vacuum-dried formulations that included trehalose and borate showed greater enzymatic activities than those prepared with trehalose alone. We attribute this stability to the formation of a chemical complex between trehalose and borate.

Conclusions: The high Tg values of trehalose/borate mixtures offer several advantages over the use of trehalose alone. Most notable is the storage stability under conditions of high temperature and high relative humidity. In these cases, formulations that contain trehalose and borate are superior to those containing trehalose alone. These results have practical implications for long-term storage of biological materials.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Borates / chemistry
  • Enzyme Stability
  • Freeze Drying
  • Freezing
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / chemistry*
  • Protein Denaturation
  • Trehalose / chemistry


  • Borates
  • Trehalose
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase