Objective: To compare recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike protein, (SP) R2-2, with attenuated live virus (ALV) vaccine in sows during late pregnancy.
Animals: 13 TGEV-seronegative sows and their pigs.
Procedure: At prepartum weeks (PPW) 6 and 4, sows of groups 1 and 2 received ALV via the oral/intranasal (O/IN) route. At PPW 2, group-1 sows received ALV IM and group-2 sows received SPR2-2 IM. Group-3 sows received SPR2-2 IM at PPW 4 and ALV O/IN at PPW 2. Sows of group 4 (negative controls) were inoculated O/IN with mock-infected ST cell fluids at PPW 6 and 4 and IM with Sf9 cell lysates at PPW2 (n = 2), or IM with Sf9 cell lysates at PPW4 and O/IN with mock-infected ST cell fluids at PPW2 (2). Serum, colostrum, and milk samples were tested for antibody to TGEV, and a lymphoproliferative (LP) assay was done on blood mononuclear cells. Suckling pigs were challenge exposed with virulent TGEV.
Results: Sows of groups 1 and 2 had higher IgG and significantly higher antibody titers in colostrum; their pigs had significantly higher serum antibody titer. At challenge exposure of their pigs, LP responses of group-2 sows were significantly higher than those of sows in the other 3 groups. Mean pig mortality ranged from 43 (group 2) to 92% (group 4). Significant negative correlations were observed among litter mortality and sow LP response, colostral titer, and pig serum titer at time of challenge exposure.
Conclusions: In sows vaccinated twice with attenuated live TGEV, the recombinant SPR2-2 administered IM may be comparable to ALV administered IM as a booster. Vaccination failed to provide complete protection to suckling pigs after challenge exposure.