Cancer of the prostate gland is one of the most common malignancies in affluent nations, in part due to the application of new screening and diagnostic tools. The development of life-threatening prostate cancer is the culmination of a complex series of initiation and promotional events over a period of decades and under the influence of many interacting genetic and environmental factors. A rapidly accumulating scientific literature provides compelling evidence for the hypothesis that diet and nutrition are important factors modifying risk of prostate cancer. Additional resources devoted to interactive research efforts by laboratory scientists and epidemiologists will provide further enlightenment and continued refinement of our assessment of risks and benefits for specific nutrients and dietary patterns. These studies provide hope that evidence-based dietary interventions will significantly impact the risk of prostate cancer and enhance the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.