Analysis of antiretroviral nucleosides by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and collision induced dissociation

Nucleosides Nucleotides. 1998 May;17(5):845-53. doi: 10.1080/07328319808003457.


Antiretroviral nucleoside drugs used against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been analyzed using negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and collision-induced dissociation (CID-MS/MS). Mass fragmentation of azidothymidine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), dideoxycytidine (ddC) and dideoxythiacytidine (3TC) were obtained at different cone voltages and collision energies. Fragmentation of purines and pyrimidines occurred by different pathways. For purines (ddI), the fragmentation was similar to those found in endogenous nucleosides; mainly the pseudo molecular ion is present (M-H)- and a cleavage through the glycosidic bond forming (B)- was observed. For pyrimidines (AZT, ddC, 3TC), the fragmentation pathways were different from endogenous nucleosides; for AZT, the fragmentation occurred primarily through the elimination of the azido group in the 3'-position (M-H2-N3)-, whereas ddC and 3TC presented more complex fragmentation patterns. For ddC, fragmentation appeared to be dominated by a retro Diels-Alder mechanism (M-CONH)-. For 3TC, the sulfur atom in the sugar moiety provided greater stability to the charge, producing fragments where the charge resided initially in the dideoxyribose (M-C2O2H6)-.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / chemistry*
  • Didanosine / chemistry
  • Dideoxynucleosides / chemistry*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Lamivudine / chemistry
  • Models, Chemical
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / chemistry*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion
  • Zalcitabine / chemistry
  • Zidovudine / chemistry


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Dideoxynucleosides
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  • Lamivudine
  • Zidovudine
  • Zalcitabine
  • Didanosine