Objectives: This study was designed to determine the frequency of 22q11 deletions in a large, prospectively ascertained sample of patients with conotruncal defects and to evaluate the deletion frequency when additional cardiac findings are also considered.
Background: Chromosome 22q11 deletions are present in the majority of patients with DiGeorge, velocardiofacial and conotruncal anomaly face syndromes in which conotruncal defects are a cardinal feature. Previous studies suggest that a substantial number of patients with congenital heart disease have a 22q11 deletion.
Methods: Two hundred fifty-one patients with conotruncal defects were prospectively enrolled into the study and screened for the presence of a 22q11 deletion.
Results: Deletions were found in 50.0% with interrupted aortic arch (IAA), 34.5% of patients with truncus arteriosus (TA), and 15.9% with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Two of 6 patients with a posterior malalignment type ventricular septal defect (PMVSD) and only 1 of 20 patients with double outlet right ventricle were found to have a 22q11 deletion. None of the 45 patients with transposition of the great arteries had a deletion. The frequency of 22q11 deletions was higher in patients with anomalies of the pulmonary arteries, aortic arch or its major branches as compared to patients with a normal left aortic arch regardless of intracardiac anatomy.
Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients with IAA, TA, TOF and PMVSD have a deletion of chromosome 22q11. Deletions are more common in patients with aortic arch or vessel anomalies. These results begin to define guidelines for deletion screening of patients with conotruncal defects.