Lymphoproliferative lesions of the ocular adnexa. Analysis of 112 cases

Ophthalmology. 1998 Aug;105(8):1430-41. doi: 10.1016/S0161-6420(98)98024-1.


Objective: Lymphoproliferative lesions of the ocular adnexa were analyzed to examine (1) the suitability of the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification for the subtyping of the lymphomas in these sites; (2) the predictive value of the REAL classification for the evolution of these tumors; and (3) the frequency and prognostic impact of tumor type, location, proliferation rate (Ki-67 index), p53, CD5 positivity and the presence of monoclonality within these tumors.

Design: Retrospective review.

Methods: The clinical, histomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) features of lymphoid proliferations of the ocular adnexa were studied. STUDY MATERIALS: The ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions were located as follows: orbit in 52 patients (46%), conjunctiva in 32 patients (29%), eyelid in 23 patients (21%), and caruncle in 5 patients (4%).

Results: Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia was diagnosed in 12 cases and lymphoma in 99 cases; 1 case remained indeterminate. The five main subtypes of lymphoma according to the REAL classification were extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma (64%), follicle center lymphoma (10%), diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma (9%), plasmacytoma (6%), and lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma (5%). Age, gender, and anatomic localization of the lymphomas did not have prognostic significance during a follow-up period of 6 months to 16.5 years (mean, 3.3 years). Extent of disease at time of presentation was the most important clinical prognostic factor: advanced disease correlated with increased risk ratios of having persistent disease at the final follow-up and with lymphoma-related death (P < 0.001). Histomorphologic features and immunohistochemical markers positively correlating with disseminated disease at presentation, stage at final follow-up, and occurrence of lymphoma-related death included cytologic atypia (P < 0.001), MIB-1 proliferation rate (P < 0.001), and tumor cell p53 positivity (P < 0.001). The MIB-1 proliferation rates greater than 20% in extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma corresponded to at least stage II lymphoma (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The REAL classification is suitable for the subdivision of the ocular adnexal lymphomas. The MIB-1 proliferation rate and p53 positivity may aid the prediction of disease stage and disease progression, whereas PCR can support the diagnosis and reduce the number of histologically indeterminate lesions.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antigens, CD / metabolism
  • Conjunctival Neoplasms / classification
  • Conjunctival Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology*
  • DNA, Neoplasm / analysis
  • Eyelid Neoplasms / classification
  • Eyelid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism
  • Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / classification
  • Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / metabolism
  • Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / pathology*
  • Lymphoma / classification
  • Lymphoma / metabolism
  • Lymphoma / pathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitotic Index
  • Orbital Neoplasms / classification
  • Orbital Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Orbital Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prognosis
  • Pseudolymphoma / classification
  • Pseudolymphoma / metabolism
  • Pseudolymphoma / pathology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


  • Antigens, CD
  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53