Objective: Lymphoproliferative lesions of the ocular adnexa were analyzed to examine (1) the suitability of the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification for the subtyping of the lymphomas in these sites; (2) the predictive value of the REAL classification for the evolution of these tumors; and (3) the frequency and prognostic impact of tumor type, location, proliferation rate (Ki-67 index), p53, CD5 positivity and the presence of monoclonality within these tumors.
Design: Retrospective review.
Methods: The clinical, histomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) features of lymphoid proliferations of the ocular adnexa were studied. STUDY MATERIALS: The ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions were located as follows: orbit in 52 patients (46%), conjunctiva in 32 patients (29%), eyelid in 23 patients (21%), and caruncle in 5 patients (4%).
Results: Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia was diagnosed in 12 cases and lymphoma in 99 cases; 1 case remained indeterminate. The five main subtypes of lymphoma according to the REAL classification were extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma (64%), follicle center lymphoma (10%), diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma (9%), plasmacytoma (6%), and lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma (5%). Age, gender, and anatomic localization of the lymphomas did not have prognostic significance during a follow-up period of 6 months to 16.5 years (mean, 3.3 years). Extent of disease at time of presentation was the most important clinical prognostic factor: advanced disease correlated with increased risk ratios of having persistent disease at the final follow-up and with lymphoma-related death (P < 0.001). Histomorphologic features and immunohistochemical markers positively correlating with disseminated disease at presentation, stage at final follow-up, and occurrence of lymphoma-related death included cytologic atypia (P < 0.001), MIB-1 proliferation rate (P < 0.001), and tumor cell p53 positivity (P < 0.001). The MIB-1 proliferation rates greater than 20% in extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma corresponded to at least stage II lymphoma (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The REAL classification is suitable for the subdivision of the ocular adnexal lymphomas. The MIB-1 proliferation rate and p53 positivity may aid the prediction of disease stage and disease progression, whereas PCR can support the diagnosis and reduce the number of histologically indeterminate lesions.