It has been almost 10 years since a major review on the association of Aeromonas with human disease has been published. During that period the number of valid species in the genus has grown to 14, with a new family (Aeromonadaceae) established to house this genus. Despite this explosion in the number of new genomospecies, only five (Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii, A. jandaei, and A. schubertii) are currently recognized as human pathogens. New syndromes attributed to this genus include hemolytic uremic syndrome, burn-associated sepsis, and a variety of respiratory tract infections, including epiglottitis. Convincing evidence suggests that some aeromonads do cause gastroenteritis, but it is presently unclear whether many of the strains isolated from feces are involved in diarrheal disease. Many questions regarding this genus remain unanswered.