We compared high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with chest radiography (CR) to determine if there is any advantage to using HRCT in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Simultaneously obtained chest radiographs were compared with HRCT scans for 47 patients with clinical symptoms and signs suspicious for CAP, HRCT identified all 18 CAP cases (38.3%) apparent on radiographs as well as eight additional cases (i.e., 55.3%); P = .004. The corresponding figures for bilateral involvement were six by CR (33.3%) and 16 by HRCT (61.5%), P = .001. CR did not show changes particularly affecting the upper and lower lung lobes and the lingula. Bronchopneumonia was visualized by CR in 11 cases (61.1%) and by HRCT in 22 cases (84.6%). The corresponding figures for airspace pneumonia were four (22.2%) and one (3.8%), respectively. The use of HRCT seems to increase the number of CAP cases confirmed by imaging and to improve the accuracy of diagnosing and typing of CAP.