Carney complex (CC), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), Cowden disease (CD), and Bannayan-Zonana syndrome (BZS) share clinical features, such as mucocutaneous lentigines and multiple tumors (thyroid, breast, ovarian, and testicular neoplasms), and autosomal dominant inheritance. A genetic locus has been identified for CC on chromosome 2 (2p16), and the genes for PJS, CD, and BZS were recently identified; genetic heterogeneity appears likely in both CC and PJS. The genes for PJS and CD/BZS, STK11/LKB1 and PTEN, respectively, may act as tumor suppressors, because loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the PJS and CD/BZS loci has been demonstrated in tumors excised from patients with these disorders. We studied 2 families with CC in whom the disease could not be shown to segregate with polymorphic markers from the 2p16 locus. Their members presented with lesions frequently seen in PJS and the other lentiginosis syndromes. We also tested 16 tumors and cell lines established from patients with CC for LOH involving the PJS and CD/BZS loci. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, tumor cell lines, and tissues and subjected to PCR amplification with primers from microsatellite sequences flanking the STK11/LKB1 and PTEN genes on 19p13 and 10q23, respectively, and a putative PJS locus on 19q13. All loci were excluded as candidates in both families with LOD scores less than 2 and/or by haplotype analysis. LOH for these loci was not present in any of the tumors that were histologically identical to those seen in PJS. The overall rate of LOH for the PJS and CD/BZS loci in tumors from patients with CC was less than 10%. We conclude that despite substantial clinical overlap among CC, PJS, CD, and BZS, LOH for the STK11 and PTEN loci is an infrequent event in CC-related tumors. Linkage analysis excluded the PJS and CD/BZS loci on chromosomes 19 (19p13 and 19q13) and 10 (10q23) from harboring the gene defect(s) responsible for the phenotype in these 2 families.