beta-Lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is related primarily to the emergence of novel beta-lactamases. The class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamases hydrolyze extended-spectrum beta-lactams and are inhibited by clavulanic acid. These beta-lactamases are divided in two groups: TEM and SHV derivatives and non-TEM and non-SHV extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (CTX-M1, CTX-M2, MEN-1, PER-1, PER-2, TOHO-1, and VEB-1). The plasmid-mediated cephalosporinases (MIR-1, FOX-1, MOX-1, BIL-1, CMY-1, CMY-2, and LAT-1) hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins and cephamycins and are not inhibited by clavulanic acid. They have been reported in Europe and in the United States. The 15 inhibitor-resistant penicillinases are TEM derivatives (except for SHV-10) and plasmid mediated, and they are mainly from Escherichia coli isolates. The carbapenemases noted among Enterobacteriaceae are either the chromosomally located penicillinases (Sme-1, NmcA, IMI-1) found in rare Enterobacter cloacae or Serratia marcescens isolates or the plasmid-mediated metalloenzyme IMP-1 that is widespread in Japan. The incidence of resistance among Enterobacteriaceae related to the other more common beta-lactam-resistance mechanisms has continued to rise worldwide.