Auxin response factors or ARFs are a recently discovered family of transcription factors that bind with specificity to auxin response elements (AuxREs) in promoters of primary or early auxin-responsive genes. ARFs have an amino-terminal DNA-binding domain related to the carboxyl-terminal DNA-binding domain in the maize transactivator VIVIPAROUS1. All but one ARF identified to date contain a carboxyl-terminal protein-protein interaction domain that forms a putative amphipathic alpha-helix. A similar carboxyl-terminal protein-protein interaction domain is found in the Aux/IAA class of auxin-inducible proteins. Some ARFs contain transcriptional activation domains, while others contain repression domains. ARFs appear to play a pivotal role in auxin-regulated gene expression of primary response genes.