Root resorptions in upper first premolars after application of continuous intrusive forces. Intra-individual study

J Orofac Orthop. 1998;59(4):208-19. doi: 10.1007/BF01579165.
[Article in English, German]


A scanning electron microscopy study of possible root resorptions and their localization after application of continuous forces of different magnitudes was conducted. Twelve upper first premolars, indicated for extraction, were previously intruded with constant forces. The teeth were divided into 3 groups: 1. non-moved control teeth, 2. continuous force application of 50 cN for 4 weeks, 3. continuous force application of 100 cN for 4 weeks. Specially designed NiTi-SE-stainless steel springs were utilized to exert the actual forces. After experimental tooth movement, the extracted teeth were dehydrated, metal-coated and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The intruded teeth showed resorptive areas consisting of lacunae (concavities) in the mineralized root surface. The teeth moved with 50 cN showed in the apical third several, in the medial third few, and in the cervical third no resorptive areas. In the case of the teeth moved with 100 cN, we observed resorptive areas in most of the apical third--including the apex contour-, several in the medial third, and none in the cervical third. In the control group no resorptions were observed. Thus, our results suggest that intrusion of human teeth with continuous forces induces root resorption, depending on the magnitude of force applied.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Root Resorption / pathology*
  • Root Resorption / physiopathology
  • Stress, Mechanical