Ocular vascular thrombosis following tin ethyl etiopurpurin (SnET2) photodynamic therapy: time dependencies

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1998 Aug;29(8):663-8.


Background and objectives: To evaluate the optimal time from the end of photosensitizer injection to the commencement of light application for creating characteristic fundus lesions and the time to vascular occlusion following photodynamic therapy (PDT) with tin ethyl etiopurpurin (SnET2).

Materials and methods: Following intravenous injection of SnET2 0.5 mg/kg or lipid emulsion alone, the fundus of rabbits was irradiated at different times (5 to 240 minutes) after photosensitizer injection using 664 +/- 7-nm laser light with an irradiance of 354 mW/cm2 and fluence of 20 J/cm2. Ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography were performed 1 day after SnET2 PDT. In separate groups of rabbits, treated areas of the fundus were imaged within 30 minutes following PDT using fluorescein vesicle and microsphere angiography with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy to document time of vascular occlusion. All animals were killed 1 day following treatment and eyes were examined by histopathology.

Results: Areas of hypofluorescence (indicating vascular occlusion) were seen when activating laser light was applied 5 to 20 minutes after SnET2 injection. Retinal vessels remained perfused in all cases. The time to vascular occlusion was 70 to 120 and 40 to 90 minutes in nonpigmented and pigmented rabbits, respectively. No safety issues were seen.

Conclusion: PDT with SnET2 was effective in occluding the choriocapillaris. Activating light needs to be applied within a specific time frame after photosensitizer injection to achieve vascular occlusion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Choroid / blood supply*
  • Choroid Diseases / etiology*
  • Choroid Diseases / pathology
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Light
  • Ophthalmoscopy
  • Photochemotherapy / methods*
  • Porphyrins / administration & dosage
  • Porphyrins / therapeutic use
  • Rabbits
  • Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage
  • Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Retina / pathology
  • Thrombosis / etiology*
  • Thrombosis / pathology
  • Time Factors


  • Porphyrins
  • Radiation-Sensitizing Agents
  • tin etiopurpurin