Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is still the most common cause of failure of surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, despite the substantial effort that has been devoted to better understanding and managing this condition during the past 25 years. Basic research has indicated that PVR represents scarring, the end stage of the wound-healing process that occurs after retinal detachment surgery. Medical treatment has been directed toward preventing inflammation, the first phase of the wound healing process, and inhibiting cell proliferation, the second phase. The 1983 Retina Society classification was modified in 1989 by the Silicone Study Group, whose classification differentiates between posterior and anterior forms of PVR and recognizes three patterns of proliferation: diffuse, focal, and subretinal. The anterior form has a worse prognosis than the posterior form, and its treatment requires more complex surgical procedures. In this review, risk factors and pathobiology of PVR are discussed, and management of PVR of various degrees of severity are considered.