Physical or chemical injuries, infections, immunologic oculocutaneous disorders, drugs, and various systemic disorders may cause scarring of the conjunctiva and disturbances of the ocular surface. Trichiasis, lid margin malposition, and dry eye may result in persistent ocular irritation. The cornea may be primarily or secondarily involved. If severe, disturbances of the ocular surface may lead to significant visual impairment. Thorough evaluation of patients and of the underlying disease process is required for optimal management. Treatment may be challenging and should be comprehensive, combining medical measures and surgical correction of structural changes. Suppression of exogenous irritants, treatment of dry eye, antiinflammatory therapy, and immunosuppressants are paramount to control the underlying disease and allow optimal surgical results. Surgical correction of trichiasis and lid margin malposition, conjunctival grafting, mucous membrane transplantation, limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and penetrating keratoplasty help reestablish a physiologic ocular surface. Severe cases may require keratoprosthetics for visual rehabilitation. Corneal ulceration or perforation requires prompt attention to maintain ocular integrity. Special measures should be considered for patients who require cataract or glaucoma surgery.