This study investigates whether in stress-prone subjects, carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor food (CR/PP) prevents a deterioration of mood and performance under uncontrollable laboratory stress conditions. The assumption was that in stress-prone subjects there is a higher risk of serotonin deficiency in the brain and that carbohydrates may prevent a functional shortage of central serotonin during acute stress, due to their potentiating effect on brain tryptophan. Twenty-four subjects with a high stress-proneness (HS) and 24 subjects with a low stress-proneness (LS) participated in an uncontrollable stress situation under both a CR/PP and a protein-rich, carbohydrate-poor (PR/CP) diet condition. The plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) (ratio Tryptophan/ summation operatorLNAA) was determined as a measure indicating the dietary effect on brain tryptophan and serotonin levels. Significant increases were found in the ratio tryptophan/ summation operatorLNAA during the CR/PP diet compared with the PR/CP diet. Experimental stress had significant effects on pulse rate, skin conductance, cortisol and mood in all subjects. During the CR/PP diet only the HS subjects did not show the stress-induced rise in depression, decline in vigour and cortisol elevation that they showed after the PR/CP diet. With respect to cognitive performance, significant dietary effects were found on reaction time. It is suggested that CR/PP food in HS subjects may increase personal control, probably under the influence of higher levels of brain tryptophan and serotonin.
Copyright 1998 Academic Press.