Over-expression of iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis in animal models of systemic lupus erythematosus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aminoguanidine, a selective inhibitor of iNOS, for the protection from glomerulosclerosis in NZB/W F1 mice. Female NZB/W F1 mice (n = 8) were treated with aminoguanidine (1 g/l) in drinking water for 4 months starting at age 2 months before the onset of glomerulonephritis. Controls were age- and sex-matched mice (n = 10) without aminoguanidine treatment. By glomerular microdissection and reverse-transcription competitive polymerase chain reaction, we found that glomerular iNOS/beta-actin and TGF-beta1/beta-actin mRNA ratios were reduced 15.1% (P<0.05) and 61.3% (P<0.01), respectively, in aminoguanidine-treated mice. Aminoguanidine significantly reduced the glomerular iNOS staining, urinary nitrite production and degree of glomerulosclerosis. In addition, the glomerular volume and mean glomerular cell number were reduced 33.2% (P<0.01) and 32.8% (P<0.01), respectively. Likewise, the urinary proteinuria was also significantly reduced by aminoguanidine. These results indicate that administration of aminoguanidine may reduce the progression of glomerulosclerosis in NZB/W F1 mice, possibly through inhibition of glomerular nitric oxide production.