A case of AIDS with varicella zoster virus fulminant necrotizing encephalitis associated with cytomegalovirus ependymitis-subependymitis and a periventricular Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoma is described. The patient had no herpes zoster cutaneous eruptions and died three days after the onset of symptoms. Varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus antigens were found by immunohistochemistry in the same area around a necrotic periventricular lesion; a periventricular lymphoma, large B cell type, was also observed. In situ hybridization with Epstein-Barr virus-encoded- RNAs probe was positive in about 40% of the neoplastic cells. The association of herpes-related lesions in the same cerebral region should be consistent in AIDS cases with acute neurological symptoms.