The itch-associated responses induced by intradermal injection of leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 were studied in mice. Leukotriene B4(0.001-1 nmol/site) elicited scratching of the injected site; the dose-response curve was bell-shaped with a peak effect at 0.03 nmol/site. The effect of leukotriene B4 (0.03 nmol/site) started within 3 min, peaked in the second 10-min period, had almost subsided by 30 min, and was inhibited by the simultaneous injection of the leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist ONO-4057, 5-[2-(2carboxyethyl)-3-(6-( p-methoxyphenyl)-5E-hexenyl) oxyphenyoxy] valeric acid. Prostaglandin E2 (0.003-300 nmol/site) did not significantly elicit scratching. The results raise the possibility that leukotriene B4 is an endogenous itch mediator in the skin.