The chemokine receptor CCR5 plays a key role in the CD4-dependent entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses into target cells. We have mapped the interaction sites on CCR5 for a number of novel anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibodies and have used these to study the role of the CCR5 N-terminal ectodomain in viral entry and to demonstrate differential CCR5 epitope expression on different cell types. Deletions of the CCR5 amino terminal domain or substitution with equivalent regions from other chemokine receptors did not affect cell surface expression or reactivity with loop-specific antibodies, suggesting that the loop regions remained conformationally intact. Exchanges of the amino terminal segment of CCR5 with the equivalent domains of CCR1, CCR2, and CXCR4 did not significantly affect infection with virus pseudotyped with envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from HIV-2 and SIV, but substitution with the CXCR4 sequence abrogated entry mediated by Env from HIV-1. In contrast, deletion of the amino terminus abrogated CCR5 receptor activity for all viral Envs examined. These data indicate that the amino terminus of CCR5 has an essential role in entry mediated by diverse viral Envs but that the sequence requirements are more relaxed for the HIV-2 and SIV Envs compared to the HIV-1 Env examined. This suggests that different viral Envs make distinct and specific interactions with the amino terminus of CCR5. Viral Env utilization of CCR5 expressed on 293-T cells does not always correlate with the cellular tropism of the virus, and one possible explanation is that Env-accessible interaction sites on CCR5 differ on different cell types. We therefore analyzed binding of several anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibodies to cell lines and primary cells that express this chemokine receptor and found that whereas all antibodies bound to CCR5-transfected 293T cells, several did not bind to PBMC. The results suggest that CCR5 undergoes cell type specific structural modifications which may affect interaction with different HIV and SIV envelope glycoproteins.
Copyright 1998 Academic Press.