FLD interacts with genes that affect different developmental phase transitions to regulate Arabidopsis shoot development

Plant J. 1998 Jul;15(2):231-42. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.1998.00204.x.


A new fld mutant allele, fld-2, which significantly delayed flowering, was isolated and characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. Even under long-day conditions after more than 100 days in the greenhouse, the majority of fld-2 mutant plants had not bolted. In addition, mutant inflorescences produced more than 10 co-florescences that were subtended by a high number of rosette-like leaves before giving rise to flowers. The late-flowering phenotype of the fld-2 mutation could be partially overcome by both vernalization and GA treatment but it was not influenced by 5-azaC treatment. Phenotypic analyses of double mutants indicated that fld-2 is epistatic to early flowering mutants elf1, elf2 and elf3. In addition, fld-2 could enhance vegetative characteristics in embryonic flower 1 (emf1) mutants by causing many small sessile leaves in fld-2 emf1 double mutants. The relief of the terminal flower 1 (tfl1) mutant phenotype in fld-2 tfl1 double mutants, and the enhancement of leafy (lfy) and apetala1 (ap1) mutant phenotypes in fld-2 lfy and fld-2 ap1 double mutants, suggest that FLD is also likely to be involved in the floral transition. Our results strongly suggest that the FLD gene plays a key role in regulating the reproductive competence of the shoot and results in different developmental phase transitions in Arabidopsis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Arabidopsis / physiology*
  • Azacitidine / pharmacology
  • Ethyl Methanesulfonate
  • Genes, Plant* / drug effects
  • Gibberellins / pharmacology
  • Mutagenesis
  • Phenotype
  • Plant Growth Regulators / pharmacology
  • Plant Stems
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*


  • Gibberellins
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Ethyl Methanesulfonate
  • gibberellic acid
  • Azacitidine