Regulation of sorting and post-Golgi trafficking of rhodopsin by its C-terminal sequence QVS(A)PA

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Sep 1;95(18):10620-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.95.18.10620.


Several mutations that cause severe forms of the human disease autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa cluster in the C-terminal region of rhodopsin. Recent studies have implicated the C-terminal domain of rhodopsin in its trafficking on specialized post-Golgi membranes to the rod outer segment of the photoreceptor cell. Here we used synthetic peptides as competitive inhibitors of rhodopsin trafficking in the frog retinal cell-free system to delineate the potential regulatory sequence within the C terminus of rhodopsin and model the effects of severe retinitis pigmentosa alleles on rhodopsin sorting. The rhodopsin C-terminal sequence QVS(A)PA is highly conserved among different species. Peptides that correspond to the C terminus of bovine (amino acids 324-348) and frog (amino acids 330-354) rhodopsin inhibited post-Golgi trafficking by 50% and 60%, respectively, and arrested newly synthesized rhodopsin in the trans-Golgi network. Peptides corresponding to the cytoplasmic loops of rhodopsin and other control peptides had no effect. When three naturally occurring mutations: Q344ter (lacking the last five amino acids QVAPA), V345M, and P347S were introduced into the frog C-terminal peptide, the inhibitory activity of the peptides was no longer detectable. These observations suggest that the amino acids QVS(A)PA comprise a signal that is recognized by specific factors in the trans-Golgi network. A lack of recognition of this sequence, because of mutations in the last five amino acids causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, most likely results in abnormal post-Golgi membrane formation and in an aberrant subcellular localization of rhodopsin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Cell-Free System
  • Golgi Apparatus / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Ranidae
  • Retina / metabolism
  • Rhodopsin / chemistry
  • Rhodopsin / metabolism*


  • Rhodopsin