Androgen receptor (AR) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and mediates the biological actions of male sex steroids. In this work, we have characterized a novel 130-kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase ANPK that interacts with the zinc finger region of AR in vivo and in vitro. The catalytic kinase domain of ANPK shares considerable sequence similarity with the minibrain gene product, a protein kinase suggested to contribute to learning defects associated with Down syndrome. However, the rest of ANPK sequence, including the AR-interacting interface, exhibits no apparent homology with other proteins. ANPK is a nuclear protein that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. Its overexpression enhances AR-dependent transcription in various cell lines. In addition to the zinc finger region, ligand-binding domain and activation function AF1 of AR are needed, as the activity of AR mutants devoid of these domains was not influenced by ANPK. The receptor protein does not appear to be a substrate for ANPK in vitro, and overexpression of ANPK does not increase the extent of AR phosphorylation in vivo. In view of this, it is likely that ANPK-mediated activation of AR function is exerted through modification of AR-associated proteins, such as coregulatory factors, and/or through stabilization of the receptor protein against degradation.