A family-based analysis of whether the functional promoter alleles of the serotonin transporter gene HTT affect the risk for alcohol dependence

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998 Aug;22(5):1080-5.


A population association between a regulatory variation in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (HTT) and severe alcohol dependence was recently reported. We analyzed this potential association in a large number of systematically ascertained families in the United States; these families had at least three first-degree relatives who were alcohol-dependent. Analyses focused on individuals defined as alcohol-dependent by criteria from ICD-10 and on subsets of these individuals reporting withdrawal-related symptoms. Application of the transmission disequilibrium test did not provide support for either linkage or association between this functional polymorphism and alcohol dependence; there was no significant bias in the transmission of either allele to the alcohol-dependent offspring. We also report that African Americans differ from Caucasians in allele frequencies for this polymorphism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium / genetics
  • Alcoholism / genetics*
  • Alleles*
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics*
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency / genetics
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Male
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics*
  • Membrane Transport Proteins*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • Risk Factors
  • Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • SLC6A4 protein, human
  • Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins