High-pressure injection injuries to the hand are uncommon, but often result in poor outcome or even amputation. We report a review of the 28 cases treated surgically in our department over the last 10 years and have examined the factors leading to increased morbidity. The severity of these injuries was related to the nature of the injected material, involvement of the tendon sheath and proximal spread of the injected substance. All cases in which the digit was noted to be poorly perfused from the outset resulted in amputation. We conclude that early amputation should be considered in cases in which the affected digit is initially cool or poorly perfused.