The potential mechanism of induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in alveolar macrophages by lipopolysaccharide and its suppression by ethanol, in vivo

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998 Aug;22(5 Suppl):260S-265S. doi: 10.1097/00000374-199805001-00007.


This study reviews the putative mechanism of ethanol (ETOH)-mediated downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein and upregulation of constitutive NOS activity (ecNOS) in immunocompetent cells and endothelium, in vivo. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that ETOH inhibits the phospholipase D-tyrosine kinase pathway involved in the phosphorylation and activation of NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase, which upregulates the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, including the extracellular receptor-linked kinase 1 and 2 (erk1 and erk2). This decreases reactive oxygen intermediate formation, tyrosine kinase-induced phosphorylation, and activation of transcription factors that, in turn, decreases the expression of iNOS mRNA. Also, ETOH-mediated attenuation of endotoxin-induced downregulation of nuclear protein kinase C activity appears to decrease the stability of expressed iNOS mRNA. ETOH-mediated inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity may also explain the ability of ETOH to upregulate ecNOS enzymatic activity, because tyrosine kinase activity suppresses ecNOS enzymatic activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects
  • Down-Regulation / genetics
  • Ethanol / toxicity*
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance / drug effects
  • Immune Tolerance / immunology
  • Macrophages, Alveolar / drug effects*
  • Macrophages, Alveolar / immunology
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / genetics*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics*


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Ethanol
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase