The purpose of this study was to evaluate pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to determine 1) the incidence of thrombosis, 2) the incidence of antiphospholipid antibodies, and 3) whether there is an association between the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and thrombosis. We performed a cross-sectional cohort study in 59 consecutive SLE patients who had been managed at rheumatology clinics in two pediatric hospitals. A history, questionnaire, and chart review were completed by the study nurse blinded to laboratory results. Only the thrombotic events that could be substantiated by review of radiographic tests were accepted. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies was determined by prospective analysis for a lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies on two separate occasions at least 3 mo apart. Patients were considered to be positive if one or more tests were positive on both occasions. Thirteen thrombotic events occurred in 10 of the 59 patients (17%). Fourteen patients (24%) were classified as positive for lupus anticoagulant, and 19 patients (27%) were classified as positive for anticardiolipin antibodies. A significant relationship between the presence of a lupus anticoagulant and a thrombotic event was shown: odds ratio 28.7 (95% confidence interval 4.03-138.2, p < 0.001). A nonsignificant trend was seen for the presence of an anticardiolipin antibody and a thrombotic event: odds ratio 2.12 (95% confidence interval 0.71-22.8, p=0.08). We conclude that in pediatric patients with SLE: 1) a significant proportion of patients have thrombotic events, 2) a significant proportion of patients have antiphospholipid antibodies, and 3) there is a significant relationship between the presence of a lupus anticoagulant and thrombotic events.