Hirschsprung disease is a congenital malformation, where absence of intramural ganglia in the hindgut results in a defect in the coordination of peristaltic movement. This leads to ileus in the newborn or, more often, constipation in children and adults. The disease affects one in 5000 live births. Siblings of affected cases are at an increased risk (4%) of developing the disease. Among cases. males are affected more often than females. The first major susceptibility gene for Hirschsprung disease is the RET proto-oncogene on 10q11.2. Germline RET mutations in Hirschsprung disease are mainly inactivating, and have been reported to account for up to 20 and 50% of sporadic and familial cases, respectively. We have screened Swedish population-based samples from 62 sporadic cases and seven familial cases of Hirschsprung disease with single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), and found five mutations.