Hernias and hydroceles are common conditions of infancy and childhood, and inguinal hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed pediatric surgical operations. As a result of improved neonatal intensive care, more and more premature babies are being delivered, and consequently the incidence of neonatal inguinal hernia is increasing. The most important aspect of the management of neonatal inguinal hernias relate to its risk on incarceration, and emphasis is placed on this point. This article covers the embryology, incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment of groin hernias and hydroceles, as well as dealing with abdominal wall hernias other than umbilical hernias. This article places special emphasis on when a patient with a hernia or hydrocele should be referred to a pediatric surgeon.