Early Lyme borreliosis sera with significant titers of anti-outer surface protein C (OspC) borreliacidal antibodies were identified. Human anti-OspC borreliacidal antibodies could be either IgM or IgG. Significant concentrations of borreliacidal activity were detected after vaccination of mice with OspC. Detection of anti-OspC borreliacidal activity was dependent on surface expression of OspC by Borrelia burgdorferi isolate 50772. The ability of OspC to induce borreliacidal antibodies in vivo and after vaccination offers another possible explanation for the ability of vaccination with OspC to protect against infection with B. burgdorferi. Furthermore, detection of anti-OspC borreliacidal antibodies, especially IgM antibodies, in early Lyme borreliosis sera provides additional evidence that borreliacidal antibody detection may be useful for the serodiagnosis of early Lyme borreliosis.