Although corticosteroid therapy might be clinically beneficial for bronchiectasis, very little is known of its effects on the inflammatory and infective markers in bronchiectasis. We have therefore performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of a 4-wk administration of inhaled fluticasone in bronchiectasis. Twenty-four patients (12 female; mean age 51 yr) were randomized into receiving either inhaled fluticasone (500 microgram twice daily) via the Accuhaler device (n = 12) or placebo. At each visit, spirometry, 24-h sputum volume, sputum leukocyte density, bacterial densities, and concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were determined. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in sputum leukocyte density and IL-1beta, IL-8, and LTB4 after fluticasone treatment. The fluticasone group had one and the placebo group three episodes of exacerbation. There were no significant changes in spirometry (p > 0.05) or any reported adverse reactions in either group. The results of this study show that high-dose fluticasone is effective in reducing the sputum inflammatory indices in bronchiectasis. Large-scale and long-term studies are indicated to evaluate the effects of inhaled steroid therapy on the inflammatory components in bronchiectasis.