Taxonomic studies were performed on some Streptococcus-like organisms isolated from naturally fermented Greek Kasseri cheese. By SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins the group was found to be quite different from Streptococcus thermophilus. Comparative 16S and 23S rRNA sequence analyses showed that the isolates represent a new species within the genus Streptococcus, where they are most closely related to the Streptococcus bovis cluster. On the basis of these phylogenetic results and some phenotypic differences, a new species, Streptococcus macedonicus, is proposed. The type strain is ACA-DC 206.