Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and N-terminal amino acid sequence determination were used to compare the protein synthesis of exponentially growing Escherichia coli with heme-deficient cells. Mutation of the E. coli hemA gene encoding glutamyl-tRNA reductase resulted in the absence of detectable amounts of heme. As a consequence of heme deficiency, the induction of tryptophanase (trpA), citrate synthase (gltA), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldA) and the repression of enolase (eno) and phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk) were observed. All induced genes are under the control of the catabolite repressor protein Crp. The observed changes in gene expression as a consequence of heme depletion are discussed.