Interaction between vitamin K nutriture and bacterial overgrowth in hypochlorhydria induced by omeprazole

Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Sep;68(3):699-704. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/68.3.699.


Subjects taking a hydrogen pump blocking agent (omeprazole) develop bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. We tested the hypothesis that this bacterial overgrowth produces menaquinones, which would meet the vitamin requirement in situations of vitamin K deficiency. In a crossover-type design, 13 healthy volunteers eating a phylloquinone-restricted diet for 35 d were randomly assigned to take omeprazole during the first period of study or starting on day 15 until the end of the study. Coagulation times, serum osteocalcin [total osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC)], plasma phylloquinone, urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, and plasma undercarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II) were measured. Plasma phylloquinone concentrations declined 82% with dietary phylloquinone restriction (P < 0.05) and were not significantly different in the period when the diet was combined with omeprazole treatment (P > 0.05). The mean value for PIVKA-II during the phylloquinone-restricted diet significantly increased 5.7-fold from baseline (P < 0.05); however, the combination of omeprazole treatment and the phylloquinone-restricted diet significantly reduced PIVKA-II values by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with the diet period alone. There were no alterations in total or percentage ucOC concentrations during the phylloquinone-restricted diet or during the period of diet plus omeprazole treatment. Our data support the hypothesis that bacterial overgrowth results in the synthesis and absorption of menaquinones. These menaquinones contribute to vitamin K nutriture during dietary phylloquinone restriction, but not enough to restore normal vitamin K status.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 1-Carboxyglutamic Acid / urine
  • Achlorhydria / chemically induced
  • Achlorhydria / metabolism*
  • Achlorhydria / microbiology
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bacteria / growth & development*
  • Biomarkers*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet
  • Drug Interactions
  • Humans
  • Intestine, Small / drug effects*
  • Intestine, Small / metabolism
  • Intestine, Small / microbiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Omeprazole / administration & dosage
  • Omeprazole / pharmacology*
  • Osteocalcin / blood
  • Protein Precursors / metabolism
  • Prothrombin / metabolism
  • Vitamin K / biosynthesis*
  • Vitamin K 1 / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin K 1 / blood
  • Vitamin K 1 / pharmacology*
  • Vitamin K Deficiency / drug therapy*
  • Vitamin K Deficiency / metabolism


  • Biomarkers
  • Protein Precursors
  • Osteocalcin
  • Vitamin K
  • acarboxyprothrombin
  • 1-Carboxyglutamic Acid
  • Vitamin K 1
  • Prothrombin
  • Omeprazole