Neural predictive controller for insulin delivery using the subcutaneous route

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1998 Sep;45(9):1122-34. doi: 10.1109/10.709556.


A neural predictive controller for closed-loop control of glucose using subcutaneous (s.c.) tissue glucose measurement and s.c. infusion of monomeric insulin analogs was developed and evaluated in a simulation study. The proposed control strategy is based on off-line system identification using neural networks (NN's) and nonlinear model predictive controller design. The system identification framework combines the concept of nonlinear autoregressive model with exogenous inputs (NARX) system representation, regularization approach for constructing radial basis function NN's, and validation methods for nonlinear systems. Numerical studies on system identification and closed-loop control of glucose were carried out using a comprehensive model of glucose regulation and a pharmacokinetic model for the absorption of monomeric insulin analogs from the s.c. depot. The system identification procedure enabled construction of a parsimonious network from the simulated data, and consequently, design of a controller using multiple-step-ahead predictions of the previously identified model. According to the simulation results, stable control is achievable in the presence of large noise levels, for unknown or variable time delays as well as for slow time variations of the controlled process. However, the control limitations due to the s.c. insulin administration makes additional action from the patient at meal time necessary.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Computer Simulation
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Drug Delivery Systems*
  • Humans
  • Injections, Subcutaneous / instrumentation
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / pharmacokinetics
  • Models, Biological
  • Neural Networks, Computer*
  • Nonlinear Dynamics


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin