The development of sex differences in cardiovascular disease mortality: a historical perspective

Am J Public Health. 1998 Sep;88(9):1348-53. doi: 10.2105/ajph.88.9.1348.


Objectives: Little is known about why males have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates than do females. An important factor that has hampered efforts in this regard is the lack of clarity about whether male excess mortality from CVD has existed throughout history. To answer this question, an investigation was conducted of trends in CVD mortality differences between the sexes from the time when data first became available until the present, including the full range of age groups.

Methods: Mortality statistics for CVD in England and Wales from 1861 through 1992 and in the United States from 1900 through 1991 were used.

Results: Three stages in the relationship between male and female CVD mortality were found: (1) An early stage of equal male and female mortality, (2) a stage of the appearance of sex differences in mortality, and (3) a stage with consistently present male excess mortality.

Conclusion: Male excess mortality from CVD has not always been present in the historical record. Further research is needed to elucidate the causes of this excess mortality.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Historical Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / history*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • England / epidemiology
  • Female
  • History, 19th Century
  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mortality / trends
  • Sex Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Wales / epidemiology