While European and United States guidelines for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection have been developed, there are no guidelines for the Asian Pacific. International experts and recognised local authorities met in Singapore in 1997 to develop appropriate guidelines, taking into account the high background prevalence of infection, high incidence rates of gastric cancer and resource limitations. Recommendations were made based on randomised controlled trials or where this was not possible, they were based on the current best available evidence or on good clinical practice. A number of acceptable diagnostic tests for infection are available throughout the region. The non-endoscopic methods of choice are the urea breath test or a locally validated antibody test. If endoscopy was to be performed, a biopsy urease test was recommended as the test of first choice, with histology recommended only if this was negative. Post treatment testing was not recommended for all patients; a urea breath test was considered the test of choice if available. All gastric and duodenal ulcer patients who are infected with H. pylori should be treated for H. pylori whether the ulcer is active or in remission. Patients requiring long term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy who have a current or recent history of dyspepsia, patients with early gastric cancer or low grade gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and patients with a family history of gastric cancer should be treated. However, it was concluded that there wasn't sufficient evidence that cure of H. pylori infection reduces the risk or prevents the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Many patients with dyspepsia in the region will request or require early upper endoscopy because of an inherent fear of gastric cancer. However, where endoscopy is not available or is too costly, alternative acceptable approaches were recommended in high risk cancer regions. While evidence is inconclusive to support treatment of H. pylori infection in non-ulcer dyspepsia, it was agreed that treatment be offered to patients with documented infection on a case-by-case basis. Treatment regimens need to attain an eradication rate of 90% or greater by per protocol analysis and 80% or greater by intention-to-treat analysis. A number of 7-day regimens were recommended based on available evidence. These regimens were considered likely to maximize the chances of successful eradication with one course of treatment, thereby reducing the risk of acquired antibiotic resistance and leading to long term cost savings.