Helicobacter pylori infection is widely prevalent especially in developing countries. Increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology associated with H. pylori is leading to an understanding of the mechanisms of mucosal inflammation and gastritis and how this leads to peptic ulcer disease, gastric mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), lymphoma and gastric cancer. More accurate diagnostic testing for the infection is now possible with both endoscopic and non-endoscopic tests to identify patients most appropriate for eradication therapy. Modern treatments tend to overcome the problems of metronidazole resistance and compliance seen with two week bismuth triple therapy and widely studied is a proton pump inhibitor given with clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole for one week. These achieve amongst the highest eradication rates and have also been shown to be cost effective. This paper reviews these recent advances and addresses areas of clinical interest and future directions.