Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome in a mosaic female infant with monosomy for the Xp22 region: molecular analysis of the Xp22 breakpoint and the X-inactivation pattern

Hum Genet. 1998 Jul;103(1):51-6. doi: 10.1007/s004390050782.


This paper describes a female infant with microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) and monosomy for the Xp22 region. Her clinical features included right microphthalmia and sclerocornea, left corneal opacity, linear red rash and scar-like skin lesion on the nose and cheeks, and absence of the corpus callosum. Cytogenetic studies revealed a 45,X[18]/46,X,r(X)(p22q21) [24]/46,X,del(X)(p22)[58] karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the ring X chromosome was positive for DXZ1 and XIST and negative for the Xp and Xq telomeric regions, whereas the deleted X chromosome was positive for DXZI, XIST, and the Xq telomeric region and negative for the Xp telomeric region. Microsatellite analysis for 19 loci at the X-differential region of Xp22 disclosed monosomy for Xp22 involving the critical region for the MLS gene, with the breakpoint between DXS1053 and DXS418. X-inactivation analysis for the methylation status of the PGK gene indicated the presence of inactive normal X chromosomes. The Xp22 deletion of our patient is the largest in MLS patients with molecularly defined Xp22 monosomy. Nevertheless, the result of X-inactivation analysis implies that the normal X chromosomes in the 46,X,del(X)(p22) cell lineage were more or less subject to X-inactivation, because normal X chromosomes in the 45,X and 46,X,r(X)(p22q21) cell lineages are unlikely to undergo X-inactivation. This supports the notion that functional absence of the MLS gene caused by inactivation of the normal X chromosome plays a pivotal role in the development of MLS in patients with Xp22 monosomy.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Female
  • Genetic Markers
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Microphthalmos / genetics*
  • Monosomy*
  • Mosaicism*
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations*
  • Skin Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Syndrome
  • X Chromosome*


  • Genetic Markers