Objective: To compare glycemic responses of isocaloric mixed meals containing 2% and 17% sucrose in children with type 1 diabetes who had fasting euglycemia.
Study design: Nine children (11 to 16 years) with type 1 diabetes were randomized in a crossover design to receive 2 isocaloric diets (2% or 17% sucrose) in the Clinical Research Center. In the 2% sucrose diet, starch isocalorically replaced sucrose.
Results: Fasting euglycemia was comparable on both study days (mean +/- SEM: 2% sucrose, 5.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/L or 90 +/- 5 mg/dL; 17% sucrose, 5.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/L or 91 +/- 6 mg/dL). The 17% sucrose diet resulted in a lower glycemic response than the 2% sucrose diet over the 4-hour study period (area under glucose response curve: mean +/- SEM, 37 +/- 3.5 mmol/L x 4 h vs 42 +/- 4.7 mmol/L x 4 h, P = .01). Peak blood glucose response was earlier and lower (2.2 to 2.8 mmol/L, 40 to 50 mg/dL) with the 17% sucrose diet.
Conclusions: Sucrose in moderate amounts, isocalorically exchanged for starch, lowered glycemic response between breakfast and lunch in children who were euglycemic before breakfast. These data refute concerns about adverse glycemic effects of sucrose and support the use of sucrose-containing foods in the context of a healthy meal plan.