Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O5 wild-type strain PAO1 and derived rough-type mutant strains AK1401 and AK1012 was isolated by a modified phenol/chloroform/petroleum-ether extraction method. Deoxycholate/PAGE of the LPS from the rough mutant AK1401 indicated two bands near the dye front with mobilities similar to those of the parent strain, indicating that both LPS contain a complete core and a species comprising a core and one repeating unit. Composition analysis of the LPS from strains PAO1 and AK1401 indicated that the complete core oligosaccharide was composed of D-glucose (four units), L-rhamnose (one unit), 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-galactose (one unit), L-glycero-D-manno-heptose (Hep; two units), 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo; two units), L-alanine (one unit) and phosphate (three units). The glycan structure of the LPS was determined by one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques in combination with MS-based methods on oligosaccharide samples obtained from the LPS by delipidation procedures. The locations of three phosphomonoester groups on the first heptose residue were established by a two-dimensional 31P (omega1)-half-filtered COSY experiment on the reduced core oligosaccharide sample of the LPS from the wild-type strain. The presence of a 7-O-carbamoyl substituent was observed on the second heptose. The structure of the core region of the O-chain-deficient LPS from P. aeruginosa serotype 05 is as follows: [structure: see text] where R1 is beta-D-Glcp-(1-->2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1--> and R2 is alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->6)-beta-D-Glcp-(1->. A structural model is presented that is also representative of that for P. aeruginosa serotype O6 LPS. A revised structure for the serotype O6 mutant strain A28 is presented.