Protein translocation into and across the chloroplastic envelope membranes

Plant Mol Biol. 1998 Sep;38(1-2):191-207.


Post-translational protein import into chloroplasts follows a common route characterised by the need for nucleoside-triphosphates at various steps and two distinct protein import machineries at the outer and inner envelope membrane, respectively. Several subunits of these complexes have been elucidated. In contrast, protein translocation into the chloroplastic outer envelope uses distinct and various but poorly characterised insertion pathways. A topological framework for single-membrane spanning proteins of the chloroplastic outer envelope is presented.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Biological Transport
  • Chloroplasts / chemistry
  • Chloroplasts / metabolism*
  • Intracellular Membranes / chemistry
  • Intracellular Membranes / metabolism*
  • Membrane Proteins / chemistry
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plant Proteins / chemistry
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*


  • Membrane Proteins
  • Plant Proteins