Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was performed on 36 neuroblastomas of both low and high stage of disease. This study significantly increases the number of neuroblastoma tumors studied by CGH. Analysis of larger series of tumors is particularly important in view of the different clinical subgroups that are recognized for this tumor. The present data and a comparison with all published CGH data on neuroblastoma provide further insights into the genetic heterogeneity of neuroblastoma. Stage 1, 2, and 4S tumors showed predominantly whole chromosome gains and losses. A similar pattern of whole chromosome imbalances, although less frequent, was observed in stage 3 and 4 tumors, in addition to partial chromosome gains and losses. An increase in chromosome 17 or 17q copy number was observed in 81% of tumors. The most frequent losses, either through partial or whole chromosome underrepresentation, were observed for 1p (25%), 3p (25%), 4p (14%), 9p (19%), 11q (28%), and 14q (31%). The presence of 3p, 11q or 14q deletions defines a genetic subset of neuroblastomas and contributes to the further genetic characterization of stage 3 and 4 tumors without MYCN amplification (MNA) and 1p deletion. The present study also provides additional evidence for a possible role of genes at 11q13 in neuroblastoma. In a few cases, 1p deletion or MNA detected by FISH or Southern blotting was not found by CGH, indicating that the use of a second, independent technique for evaluation of these genetic parameters is recommended.