We investigated the dynamics of the genetic changes that are associated with two types of glioma recurrence, that is, progression from a lower-grade to a high-grade tumor (7 cases) and development of a same high-grade recurrence (15 cases). Each pair of tumors was analyzed for TP53 mutation, EGFR amplification, and loss of heterozygosity for tumor suppressor genes (TP53, RB1, CDKN2A, PTEN, DMBT1) and tumor suppressor gene regions (1p36, 19q13, 11p15, 10p15) known to be frequently implicated in glioma tumorigenesis. By comparing the genetic changes in the primary and corresponding secondary tumors, we found that additional loss of CDKN2A and/or RB1, encoding important components of the cell cycle regulatory pathway, was the most frequent genetic change in both types of recurrence development (10 of 22 cases, 45%). Additional loss of heterozygosity for the 10p15 region, for PTEN, and/or for DMBT1 in the recurrent tumor was noted in 7 of 22 cases (32%), suggesting that additional inactivation of tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 10 is another important feature of glioma relapse. Less frequent additional losses were detected for chromosome regions 11p15 and 19q13 (3 of 22 cases, 14%, each). We conclude that glioma recurrences are characterized by an increased involvement of tumor suppressor genes, even in those cases in which the primary and secondary tumor are of the same high malignancy grade.