Catabolism in critical illness: estimation from urea nitrogen appearance and creatinine production during continuous renal replacement therapy

Am J Kidney Dis. 1998 Sep;32(3):444-53. doi: 10.1053/ajkd.1998.v32.pm9740161.

Abstract

Thirty-eight intensive care unit (ICU) patients (26 men and 12 women with a mean age of 57.0 +/- 16.6 years) with acute renal failure (ARF) treated by venovenous continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) were evaluated while in relatively steady metabolic control. Twenty-seven were undergoing continuous venovenous hemodialysis, nine were undergoing continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration, and two were undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration. Periods of analysis varied between 24 and 408 hours (mean duration, 82.7 +/- 70.6 hours; median, 72 hours). Their mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score within 24 hours of admission to the ICU was 21.3 +/- 6.3 and survival rate was 31.6%. Urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were determined every 6 to 12 hours in both serum (Cun and Cc, respectively) and effluent (spent dialysate and/or ultrafiltrate). The mean effluent rate was 1,472 +/- 580 mL/h and blood flow rate, 166 +/- 32 mL/min. Urine was collected daily for urea nitrogen and creatinine measurement. Urea nitrogen appearance rate (UnA) and creatinine production rate (Pc), calculated from urea nitrogen (UnMR) and creatinine mass removal (CMR) from both the effluent and the urine, using Garred mass balance equations and the Forbes-Bruining formula, allowed normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) and estimates of lean body mass (LBM) to be derived. Creatinine metabolic degradation rate (Dc), estimated by the Mitch formula, was included in the calculation. The lowest body weight recorded during the study period was considered as dry weight (BW). The creatinine index (CI) was also obtained. For each parameter, the results are presented as mean, median, and range values: UnMRe (from effluent), 13.6 +/- 7.2, 12.5, 1.6 to 32.6 mg/min; UnMRu (from urine), 0.13 +/- 0.40, 0, 0 to 2.30 mg/min; UnA, 13.6 +/- 7.0, 12.5, 3.8 to 32.1 mg/min; nPCR, 1.75 +/- 0.82, 1.60, 0.61 to 4.23 g/kg/d; CMRe (from effluent), 942.0 +/- 362.3, 918.0, 211.2 to 1,641.6 mg/d; CMRu (from urine), 44.4 +/- 138.8, 0, 0 to 698.5 mg/d; Dc, 94.6 +/- 49.9, 81.9, 31.0 to 294.1 mg/d; Pc total, 1,067.1 +/- 409.7, 1,053.7, 261.5 to 1,988.2 mg/d; LBM, 38.3 +/- 11.9, 37.9, 15.0 to 65.0 kg; LBM/BW ratio, 49.5% +/- 14.0%, 50.3%, 22.5% to 86.0%; and CI, 13.7 +/- 4.7, 14.2, 4.1 to 25.8 mg/kg/d. When Pc was estimated from the Cockcroft-Gault equations (as Pc'), the mean value for Pc and Pc' was similar (1,067.1 +/- 409.7 v 1,284.9 +/- 484.1 mg/d), but there were relatively large differences for the majority of cases. A positive correlation was observed between UnA and Pc (R = 0.42). Serum albumin and LBM/BW correlated poorly (R = 0.20). Outcome was weakly related to UnA and to nPCR (R = 0.29 and R = 0.31, respectively). Urea nitrogen appearance appears widely variable in critically ill ARF patients. This simple approach can provide useful information for an easy estimate of net protein catabolism in critically ill patients with ARF undergoing CRRT.

MeSH terms

  • APACHE
  • Acute Kidney Injury / physiopathology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / therapy*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen*
  • Body Weight / physiology
  • Creatinine / blood*
  • Critical Care*
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology*
  • Female
  • Hemodiafiltration*
  • Hemofiltration*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Renal Dialysis*

Substances

  • Proteins
  • Creatinine