To evaluate whether increased plasma homocysteine concentrations (hyperhomocysteinemia) are associated with thrombosis of arteriovenous (AV) grafts, we determined plasma homocysteine, plasma and erythrocyte folate, plasma vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate [PLP]) in 48 patients (45 black patients and three white patients) with end-stage renal disease who received hemodialysis. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotypes were also analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups, including a thrombosis-prone group with frequent graft loss (n = 24) and a control group with prolonged graft survival who were matched by age and duration of dialysis (n = 24). Hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 micromol/L) was found in 42 patients. There were no significant differences in all values, including the concentrations of homocysteine and vitamins between the two groups. Based on plasma folate and PLP concentrations, over 70% of patients appeared to have inadequate folate and/or vitamin B6 nutriture. Plasma homocysteine concentrations showed significant negative correlations with plasma and erythrocyte folate, and plasma vitamin B12 in all patients combined, whereas no significant correlation was found between plasma PLP and homocysteine concentrations. Among 48 patients, the heterozygous mutation (Val/Ala) of MTHFR was found only in three patients, two of whom belonged to the thrombosis-prone group and one to the control group, and there were no individuals with homozygous thermolabile mutation (Val/Val). All three white patients had Ala/Ala genotype, and 3 in 45 black patients (6.7%) were heterozygotes (Val/Ala).