Objectives: We compared the clinical outcomes following coronary stent implantation in insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (IDDM), non-IDDM patients, and nondiabetic patients.
Background: Diabetic patients have increased restenosis and late morbidity following balloon angioplasty. The impact of diabetes mellitus (DM), especially IDDM, on in-stent restenosis is not known.
Methods: We studied 954 consecutive patients with native coronary artery lesions treated with elective Palmaz-Schatz stents implantation using conventional coronary angiographic and intravascular ultrasound methodology. Procedural success, major in-hospital complications, and 1-year clinical outcome were compared according to the diabetic status. RESULTS. In-hospital mortality was 2% in IDDM, significantly higher (p <0.02) compared with non-IDDM (0%) and nondiabetics (0.3%). Stent thrombosis did not differ among groups (0.9% in IDDM vs. 0% in non-IDDM and 0% in nondiabetics, p >0.1). During follow-up, target lesion revascularization (TLR) was 28% in IDDM, significantly higher (p <0.05) compared with non-IDDM (17.6%) and nondiabetics (16.3%). Late cardiac event-free survival (including death, myocardial infarction [MI], and any coronary revascularization procedure) was significantly lower (p=0.0004) in IDDM (60%) compared with non-IDDM (70%) and nondiabetic patients (76%). By multivariate analysis, IDDM was an independent predictor for any late cardiac event (OR=2.05, p=0.0002) in general and TLR (odds ratio=2.51, p=0.0001) in particular. CONCLUSIONS. In a large consecutive series of patients treated by elective stent implantation, IDDM patients were at higher risk for in-hospital mortality and subsequent TLR and, as a result, had a significantly lower cardiac event-free survival rate. On the other hand, acute and long-term procedural outcome was found to be similar for non-IDDM compared with nondiabetic patients.