Paradoxical reactions in HIV and pulmonary TB

Chest. 1998 Sep;114(3):933-6. doi: 10.1378/chest.114.3.933.


We present a case of paradoxical clinical deterioration during antituberculosis therapy in an HIV-infected adult with pulmonary TB. The clinical course was characterized by marked cervical and mediastinal adenopathy accompanied by fever and weight loss during simultaneous treatment of TB and HIV disease. After extensive investigation for causes of therapeutic failure, the paradoxical reaction was attributed to partial immune reconstitution related to highly effective antiretroviral therapy. Due to the high prevalence of TB in HIV-infected patients, it is important to recognize this phenomenon and understand that it is usually self-limited.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy*
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology
  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Treatment Failure
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / drug therapy*
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / immunology


  • Anti-HIV Agents